Sunday, 23 November 2014

BG 1.1 'A śloka a day' #SAH #SanskritGrammar

धृतराष्ट्र उवाच
धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः |
मामकाः पाण्डवाश् चैव किम् अकुर्वत संजय ||1||

dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāca:

dharma-kṣetre kuru-kṣetre samavetā yuyutsavaḥ |
māmakāḥ pāṇḍavāś caiva kim akurvata saṃjaya ||1||

Dhṛtarāṣṭra said:

धृतराष्ट्रः dhṛtarāṣṭra (masc, nom, singular like रामः* visarga dropped before उ of उवाच sandhi rules)
उवाच uvāca (3rd singular perfect active √vac) [He/she/it] said
धर्म-क्षेत्रे dharma-kṣetre (n, loc. sg) in/on the field of dharma (genitive tatpuruṣa cpd)
कुरु-क्षेत्रे  kuru-kṣetre (n, loc. sg) in/on the field of kuru (genitive tatpuruṣa cpd)
समवेताः  samavetāḥ  (m nom pl ppp sam ava √i) come together, assembled. visarga is dropped before  य of युयुत्सवः  sandhi rules)
युयुत्सवः (m nom pl desiderative adj √yudh) desiring to fight. Battle hungry
मामकाः māmakāḥ  (m nom pl) mine, my (visarga stays before पाण्डवाः sandhi rules)
पाण्डवाः pāṇḍavā (m nom pl) the sons of Pāṇḍu (visarga becomes श् before succeeding च)
चैव caiva (च +एव) च and  एव indeed; used as a metric filler
किम् kim (interrogative) what; note the म् assimilates with the अ of अकुर्वत and becomes म and not an anusvāra)
अकुर्वत akurvata  (3rd plural imperfect ĀP √kṛ) [they] did
संजय! Saṃjaya (Vocative case, hence no visarga. Top tip to locate direct speech!)

* Please refer to this table to understand the case विभक्ति of the substantives that end with 'अ/a'  like क्षेत्र, etc.
Table generated using


fernglaser said...

I chanced upon your site via Twitter. I absolutely love the work here. Well done and thank you.
किम् अकुर्वत = kimakurvata and Sanjaya (without the visarga) - after all these years! I have recited that line over a thousand times and the light bulb has gone ON now.

Anonymous said...

very grateful.

latha vidyaranya said...

Good that i spotted this (thro twitter) when the BG has just begun!
god bless u !

Anonymous said...


You are doing a great job in spreading awareness & educating people about Sanskrit. God willing, may the day soon arrive in India when people communicate in Sanskrit as fluently as they do in Hindi. Amen!!

Would be obliged if you can shed some light on the following query:
There are various conventions to represent transliterated characters in English. Have observed that sometimes, a letter with anusvara as 'n' in Ganga is represented with a dot above m & at times it is represented with a dot below m. Also, referring to Transliterated 'Ram Charit Manas' published by Gita Press, Gorakhpura, in chopais they have used m with a dot above it & in the summary they have used n with a dot above it to represent Ganga.

Can you please let me know the correct convention that should be used? Any pointers or links will also be highly appreciated.

Thank you!!

Anonymous said...

i am a total sanskrit ignoramus but on discovering your site decided to jump in and grope my way about.
could you please summarise in english after you have parsed the words individually?