Monday, 5 November 2012

Hitopadesha verse: Indefinite suffixes cit/cana

This verse helps us fix the application of suffixes cit, and cana both of which show that something non-specific is being referred to. It corresponds to the indefinite article in English. 'a' rather than 'the' or 'that'. Please use this verse to refresh some sandhi rules. The table for किम्  is at the bottom of the page.

Sandhi note: 
Before kasya, t remains t
Before mitram t becomes n
Before ripu t becomes d
Before tathaa the visarga becomes s
Before cit the visarga becomes sh

न कश्चित् कस्यचिन्मित्रं न कश्चित् कस्यचिद्रिपुः 

व्यवहारेण जायन्ते मित्राणि रिपवस्तथा 

na kaścit kasyacin mitram na kaścit kasyacid ripuḥ
vyavahāreṇa jāyante mitrāṇi ripavas tatha 

No one is anyone's friend, no one is anyone's enemy
By means of behaviour, friends and enemies are born.


न कश्चित् कस्यचित् मित्रम् न कश्चित् कस्यचित् रिपुः
व्यवहारेण जायन्ते मित्राणि रिपवः तथा 
न not 
कश्चित् someone, anyone
कस्यचित् of someone/anyone (note genitive form)
मित्रम् friend, (neut., sing.)
न not 
कश्चित् someone/anyone 
कस्यचित् of someone/anyone
रिपुः enemy (masc., sing)
व्यवहारेण by means of conduct/behaviour (instrumental, sing., of vyavahāra)
जायन्ते are born (ĀP, 3rd person plural jan)
मित्राणि friends, nominative plural of mitram
रिपवः enemies nominative plural of ripuḥ
तथा and

Adding the 'kim' masculine table for those of you who prefer the traditional way of study. As you can see, kaḥ is the nominative singular, meaning Who[He]. That is what is forming कश्चित्  kaḥ + cit (visarga becomes श्  before the च्  of cit) And kasya is the genitive singular Of whom/किस का Here's the table: 


Anonymous said...

I see 20+ comments on your dharma post so the guards didn't phase them!

Anonymous said...

Hi! Can you help me in translating these lines. I am not able to.
भक्ष्यतां भुज्यतां नित्यं, दीयतां रम्यतामिति।
गीयतामं प्रीयतां चेति, शब्दश्चासीत् गृहे गृहे।।
अज्ञातो न स्थास्यसि यदि लोकैर्न ज्ञास्यसे।
आत्मना ज्ञास्यसे नूनं यदि लोकैर्न ज्ञास्यसे।।