Sunday, 4 November 2012

Subhaṣitāni - optative mood practice

Today's subhaṣitam is from the Sanskrit Daily 'Sudharma':

त्यजेद्धर्मं दयाहीनं विद्याहीनं गुरुं त्यजेत्‌ । 

त्यजेत्क्रोधमुखीं भार्यां निःस्नेहान बान्धवांस्त्यजेत्‌ ।। 

tyajed dharma dayā hīnaṃ vidyā hīnaṃ guruṃ tyajet
tyajet  krodhamukhīṃ bhāryāṃ niḥsnehān bāndhavān tyajet

Sandhi note: t becomes a d before dharmam

Here's the vigraha, although I'm sure you got already!
त्यजेत्  धर्मम् दया हीनम् विद्या हीनम् गुरुम् त्यजेत् 
त्यजेत् क्रोधमुखीम् भार्याम्  निःस्नेहान् बान्धवान् त्यजेत् 

त्यजेत् tyajet is the 3rd person sing. optative (विधि लि*) form of  त्यज्  to abandon, to give up. It means he/she/it ought to be given up. 

Here is a table of the verb भू including the optative form at the bottom, starting with bhavet. Please familiarise yourself with it. (Sorry about the finger and poor clarity but this is the best I could do!! Think it's clear enough. Sorry about the size, but it's more important that you be able to read it.)

त्यजेत्  ought to be abandoned
दया+हीनम् धर्मम् faith that is devoid of mercy. Note noun/adj agreement)

विद्या+हीनम् गुरुम् guru ko - accusative sing. Why? Because you are the doer, and you are doing something to him. You are abandoning him.

त्यजेत् क्रोधमुखीम् भार्याम् lit. angry-faced wife (also in accusative)

निःस्नेहान् बान्धवान् (accusative plural) unloving relatives ko


यथा एकेन चक्रेण न रथस्य गतिः भवेत्
एवं पुरुषकारेण विना दैवं न सिध्यति 

Yathā ekena cakrea rathasya gati na bhavet
Evam puruṣakāreṇa vina daivam na sidhyate

Just as a chariot cannot move with one wheel, thus without human effort Fate cannot be successful.

यथा As, like 
एकेन (by) one (instrumental singular adj. agreeing with चक्रेण)
चक्रेण (by) wheel (instrumenal sing. noun, by means of [a] wheel)
न not
रथस्य of (a) chariot (genitive sing.)
गतिः speed, movement (nom., fem., noun)
भवेत् - could be/would be/should be - optative (विधि लिङ्)
एवं - in this manner
पुरुषकारेण - by means of human effort
विना - without
दैवं - fate, neuter noun, lit. given by Gods
न not
सिध्यति is achieved, is successful 

1 comment:

Nar Bahadur Saund नरबहादुर साउँद said...

धातु के सभी रूप प्रस्तुत करे कृपया ।