Friday, 12 December 2014

BG 1.19 'A śloka a day' #SAH #SanskritGrammar

स घोषो धार्तराष्ट्राणां हृदयानि व्यदारयत् |
नभश् च पृथिवीं चैव तुमुलो व्यनुनादयन् ||19||

sa ghoṣo dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṃ hṛdayāni vyadārayat |
nabhaś ca pṛthivīṃ caiva tumulo vyanunādayan ||19||

The noise burst asunder the hearts of the sons of Dhristrashtra, and the tumult caused the sky and the earth to resound.

(Listen to all the ślokas posted so far here:

सः the, that (masc, nom, sing)
घोषः noise, tumult, sound (masc, nom, sing from √ghuṣ)
धार्तराष्ट्राणां of the sons of Dhritrashtra (masc, genitive, pl)
हृदयानि hearts (neuter, accusative, pl)
व्यदारयत् [caused to] burst, lacerated, tore, rent asunder (3rd. person, sing, imperfect, causative, active from vi√dṛ)
नभः sky, firmament (neuter, acc, sing)
पृथिवीं the earth (fem, acc, sing)
चैव and, only (च +एव )
तुमुलः tumult (masc, nom, sing)
व्यनुनादयन्  causing to thunder, to make resonant (causative, present participle, masc, nom, sing from vi+anu+√nad)

Sanskrit nouns are are not just like राम and सीता. There are a variety of endings, and each has a different declension based on ending and gender. So the accusative form of pṛthivī and nabhas are quite different. See the tables below.

Also make a habit of checking the stem of the noun on top of the table and note "समास" at the bottom of the table that it will appear in a compound in its stem form.


Anonymous said...

Great work. Waiting for the rest of the shlokas both in bhagwat gita and ramayana.

Haresh said...

An excellent approach to learning संस्कृतम् | Thanks.

Srikanth said...

Thanks. Could you explain the formation of below.
धार्तराष्ट्राणां of the sons of Dhritrashtra (masc, genitive, pl)

Two questions.
a. No where is the "sons" mentioned in the above word
b. if we interpret this as "Dhritrashtra's" then should it not be धृतराष्टराणाम्. Appoligize if this is too silly a question, but I am just trying to pickup the language.