Tuesday, 11 September 2012

Story no. 6: Brahmā hides the cowherds and the calves

For this story, see pg 88 of Vol 3 of Swami Tapasyananda's translation of the Śrimad Bhāgvatam

For those of you who are interested in the History of Hinduism, this story, and the giridhara story in which Krishna protects his community from the rain (i.e. Indra) by holding up a mountain, are meant to demonstrate the ascendency of Krishna as a deity, and the superseding of Vedic deities like Indra and Brahmā by him.

कृष्णः गोपालाः च वने खादन्ति

Krishna and the cowherds eat in the forest
Notice that the  च comes after both the things it connects.
कृष्णः 3rd person, nominative, masculine, singular 
गोपालाः 3rd person, nominative, masculine, plural
च and
वने locative case of 'vana', in the forest
खादन्ति - (they) eat, from खाद्, agreeing with गोपालाः (along with कृष्णः as part of the plural group even though he is in singular)  

गोपालानाम् वत्साः दूरे चरन्ति
The calves of the cowherds are grazing at a distance
गोपालानाम् 3rd person, genitive, plural of 'gopala' - of the cowherds
वत्साः 3rd person, nominative, plural - calves
दूरे in the distance - locative case
चरन्ति - (they) graze, from चर्, agreeing with वत्साः/calves

पितामहेन वत्साः तिरोहिताः सन्ति
(The) calves are hidden by Brahmā (पितामहः is another way to add
-ress Brahmā)
पितामहेन 3rd person, masculine, instrumental case - by 'Pitamah' 
वत्साः 3rd person, nominative, plural - the calves
तिरोहिताः (are) hidden, past participle acting as an adjective, agreeing with वत्साः
सन्ति are; verb in the 3rd person, plural, agreeing with वत्साः

कृष्णः वत्सान् न कुत्रचित् पश्यति
Krishna does not see the calves anywhere
कृष्णः 3rd person, masculine, singular
वत्सान् 3rd person, masculine plural, accusative - calves को (I'd like to flag this accusative form. As a Hindi speaker when I was learning Sanskrit, I had to train myself to use the accusative form all the time. Hopefully you wont have the same issue!)
न कुत्रचित् - not anywhere
पश्यति - sees, from श्, agreeing with Krishna

पितामहेन गोपालाः तिरोहिताः सन्ति
The cowherds are hidden by Brahmā
पितामहेन 3rd person, masculine, instrumental, case -by Him
गोपालाः 3rd person, nominative, plural - cowherds
तिरोहिताः past participle agreeing with गोपालाः
सन्ति are, from √as, to be - (they) are

कृष्णः गोपालान् न कुत्रचित् पश्यति
Krishna does not see the cowherds anywhere
कृष्णः 3rd person, masculine, singular
गोपालान् 3rd person, masculine plurar, accusative (cowherds को)
न कुत्रचित् - not anywhere
पश्यति - sees, from श्, agreeing with Krishna

सः नवान् गोपालान् करोति
He makes (lit. does) new cowherds
सः He 
नवान् new - adjective agreeing with the 3rd person, masculine, plural accusative, gopalaan
गोपालान् 3rd person, masculine, plural accusative (cowherds को)
करोति - does, makes, creates - from kṛ, agreeing with Krishna

सः नवान् वत्सान् करोति
Same as sentence above, except here he creates/makes new calves
पितामहः नवान् वत्सान् पश्यति
Brahmā sees (the) new calves
पितामहः  नवान् गोपालान् पश्यति  
Brahmā sees (the) new cowherds
पितामहः कृष्णाय नमति
Brahmā bows to Krishna
कृष्णाय dative,3rd person, masculine, singular (Krishna ko)
 नमति - verb from√नम् agreeing with Brahmā (he) bows
तिरोहिताः वत्साः पुनः आगच्छन्ति
The hidden calves come again
तिरोहिताः गोपालाः  पुनः आगच्छन्ति
The hidden cowherds come again

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