Saturday, 15 September 2012

The story of Kabandha

This episode occurs in the Rāmāyaa after Sītā has been kidnapped. Rāma and Lakmaa are looking for her. They come across a horrific demon...

रामः लक्ष्मणः च सीताम् पुनः अन्वैच्छताम्

Rāma and Lakmaa look for Sītā again (in the sense of continuation from what has gone before)
रामः3rd person masculine nominative

लक्ष्मणः3rd person masculine nominative
च and
सीताम् 3rd person singular feminine accusative सीता को 
अन्वैच्चताम् verb to search - masculine dual form agreeing with Rāma and Lakmaa.

अचिरेण तौ कृष्णम् अरण्यम् आगच्छताम्
Soon they arrive at (come to) a dark forest
अचिरेण soon
तौ 3rd person masculine dual pronoun वह दो
कृष्णम् dark, black, adjective agreeing with अरण्यम् 
अरण्यम् forest, 3rd person singular neuter accusative noun 
आगच्छताम् verb arrive/come, masculine dual form agreeing with Rāma and Lakmaa.

तस्मिन्  अरण्ये घोरः राक्षसः अवसत्
A horrific demon lived in that forest
तस्मिन् In that - locative case of तत् (he/that) agreeing with the neuter अरण्यम् 
अरण्ये locative case of अरण्यम्
घोरः horrific, scary, adjective agreeing with राक्षसः
राक्षसः3rd person masculine nominative
अवसत् lived This is the past tense of वस्, to live. 

राक्षसः कबन्धः नाम

The demon is called Kabandha
राक्षसः The demon
कबन्धः Kabandha
नाम is named

कबन्धस्य मुखम् उदरे
Kabandha's mouth is in/on his stomach
कबन्धस्य - Kabandha's: 3rd person masculine singular genitive form
मुखम् mouth: 3rd person singular neuter noun
उदरे in/on his stomach. Locative case of उदरम् - stomach

सः एकेन नेत्रेण युक्तः
He has one eye (lit. he is with one eye)
सः He - masculine pronoun singular
एकेन one - number used as an adjective agreeing with नेत्रेण 
नेत्रेण with one eye - instrumental case giving the sense of 'with' से
युक्तः joined to/possessed of, possessing - an adjective agreeing with Kabandha

रामः लक्ष्मणः च कबन्धेन गृहीतौ
Rāma and Lakmaa are grasped/grabbed by the demon
कबन्धेन by Kabandha - instrumental case
गृहीतौ - (two) are held. past participle acting as an adjective agreeing with Rāma and Lakmaa 

तौ नरौ खादिष्यामि इति कबन्धःअचिन्तयत्
I will eat the two men, Kabandha thought 
तौ 3rd person masculine dual pronoun agreeing with नरौ 
नरौ two men
खादिष्यामि I will eat. This it the future of खाद्
इति direct speech marker
कबन्धः Kabandha
अचिन्तयत् thought. This is the past tense of चिन्त्

नरयोः खड्गभ्याम् तु कबन्धस्य हस्तौ छिन्नौ
Kabandha's (two) hands are cut by the (two) swords of the (two) men
नरयोः of the two - 3rd person, masculine, dual genitive case
खड्गभ्याम् - 3rd person, masculine dual instrumental case
तु but, लेकिन, पर
कबन्धस्य - of Kabandha, 3rd person masculine singular genitive case
हस्तौ two hands - masculine nominative dual (of हस्त)
छिन्नौ - cut - adjective agreeing with two hands हस्तौ 

कबन्धः अवदत् पुरा मुनिजनस्य शापात् मम देहः घोरः अभवत्
Kabandha said long ago because of/as a result of the curse of a muni, my body became horrific
अवदत् said - past of vad
पुरा -long ago
मुनिजनस्य of the muni
शापात् - ablative case शाप से
मम - my
देहः - body masculine nominative
घोरः - adjective agreeing with देहः
अभवत् - became - past tense of √भू

हे राम यदि मम देहम् दहसि तदा मम सत्यम् रूपम् पुनः आगमिष्यति इति
Ram, if you burn my body, my true form will come back again
हे राम - vocative case  
यदि -if
मम - my
देहम् - accusative case of deha which is masculine
दहसि - (you) burn, verb addressed to Rama
तदा - then
मम - my
सत्यम् -true, as adjective agreeing with रूपम्
रूपम् - neuter noun - form
पुनः -again
आगमिष्यति - will come - future of √gam
इति - direct speech marker

रामः लक्ष्मणः च तस्य राक्षसस्या देहम् अदताम् 

Rāma and Lakmaa burnt the body of the demon

देहम् - body ko
अदताम् - past, dual verb, (two) burnt

कबन्धस्य सत्यम् रूपम् पुनःआगच्छत्
Kabandha's true form came back again
कबन्धस्य - of Kabandha- 3rd person, masculine, singular, genitive case
सत्यम् - true
रूपम् - form
पुनः- again
आगच्छत् - came past of आ+√गम् (masculine singular past form as compared to अदताम् (two burnt) 

कबन्धः अवदत् वानराणाम् नृपः सुग्रीवः नाम
Kabandha said - the king of the monkeys is called Sugriva
अवदत् - said - past tense
वानराणाम् - of the monkeys, genitive plural
नृपः - King
सुग्रीवः - Sugriva (notice the visarga, for masculine nominative singular) 
नाम - named

सुग्रीवस्य राज्यम् तु सोदरेण गृहीतम्
Sugriva's kingdom has been grabbed by his brother
सुग्रीवस्य - Sugriva's genitive singular
राज्यम् - Kingdom, neuter noun, nominative singular
तु - but, लेकिन
सोदरेण - by his brother (sodara literally means of the same womb). This is the instrumental case 
गृहीतम् - past participle acting as an adjective agreeing with राज्यम्

हे राम यदि सुग्रीवम् गच्छसि तदा सुग्रीवः तव साहाय्यम् करिष्यति इति
O Rama, if you go to go to Sugriva, then he will help you
हे राम - vocative 
यदि -if
सुग्रीवम् - to Sugriva - accusative case 
गच्छसि - you go
तदा -then
सुग्रीवः - Sugriva
तव -your
साहाय्यम् - Help, neuter noun
करिष्यति - will do - future of √कृ
इति - direct speech marker

1 comment:

patnaik said...

I just love your blog and read whenever I find time. I really feel bad that back in school never gave importance to Sanskrit and was scared of this fantastic language. Now have to depend on translation into Hindi/English to understand our own Sanskrit classics!