Monday, 18 March 2013

Bhagvad Gita 9:23-24

5th cen. temple panel, Deogarh, Gupta Period
In response to a special request from one of the followers of #SanskritAppreciationHour on Twitter, a translation of Bhagvad Gita 9:23-24. I think the purport of verse 23 is best read in conjunction with 24 since the anvaya of 24 can begin with हि. Hence I've taken the liberty of translating both. As expressed to @hd223 this is a purely linguistic explanation, with no theological, philosophical or sectarian overlay. You are welcome to draw your own conclusions, यथा-भाव!

10:23 in vigraha:

ये अपि अन्यदेवताभक्ताः यजन्ते श्रद्धया अन्वितः 
ते अपि माम् एव कौन्तेय यजन्ति अविधिपूर्वकम् 

In anvaya:

कौन्तेय! श्रद्धया अन्विताः ये भक्ताः अन्यदेवताः अपि यजन्ते 
ते अपि माम् एव यजन्ति अविधिपूर्वकम् 

कौन्तेय! O Arjuna
श्रद्धया - with faith
अन्विताः - filled with (agrees with भक्ताः )
ये - then
भक्ताः - they devotees (lit. partaken, shared p.p.p of root 'bhaj')
अन्यदेवताः - Other gods
अपि -also, even
यजन्ते - they (the devotees) sacrifice to/worship
ते - they
अपि - also
माम् - me
एव - only 
यजन्ति - worship (sacrifice to)
अविधिपूर्वकम् - not according to vidhi=injunction/rule (adverb, answering the question  "How do they sacrifice?" - answer: not according to rule)

10:24 in vigraha:

अहं हि सर्वयज्ञानां भोक्ता च प्रभुः एव च 
न तु माम् अभिजानन्ति तत्त्वेन अतः च्यवन्ति ते 

In anvaya:

हि सर्वयज्ञानां प्रभुः च भोक्ता च अहं एव 
ते मां तत्त्वेन न अभिजानन्ति अतः च्यवन्ति 

हि - (indeclinable) surely, because, for 
सर्वयज्ञानां - of all the sacrifices/worship
प्रभुः च - the Lord [and]
भोक्ता च - enjoyer [and]
अहं एव - me only
ते - they 
मां -me
तत्त्वेन - by means of truth, by 'tattva' 
न - not (don't)
अभिजानन्ति - [they don't] recognise [me]
अतः - therefore, as a result
च्यवन्ति [they] fall. From the root 'cyu'.* 

For the third person, singular present of this verb [he/she] falls, pl see: 

*Hence also the Lord if called 'acyuta' he who has not fallen/perished)

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