Monday, 8 October 2012

Kaṃsa’s Destruction: Sandhi Practice

So far all our stories did not display sandhi. Now that we are learning sandhi, I thought it might be useful to do some stories both in and out of sandhi till we complete this section. Simply by observing the difference in the sentences, you will begin to get a feel. Once we finish sandhi, I will post the rules for ready reference. Since the focus is sandhi, I will not be specifying gender, number, case, tense as I normally do. I trust you are fairly familiar with these by now. If you are new to the blog, please see earlier posts in Aug/Sept. In any case, if you have any doubts/queries/observations,  please leave a comment or write to me. 

Kaṃsa was on his seat

कंसः पीठे आसीत्

कंसः  पीठ आसीत् 
The visarga, as in कंसः is not dropped before the 'p' प् of the next word
The locative marker ए of  पीठम् is dropped before आ of the next word

He saw the death of Cāṇūra

सः चाणूरम् मृतम् अपश्यत्
सश्चाणूरं मृतमपस्यत्
The visarga of सः becomes a श् before the च्
The 'm' at the end of ūra has become an anusvāra* before the म् of the next word.

"Shortly, I will kill Krishna" Kaṃsa said

अचिरेण कृष्णम् व्यापादयिष्यामि इति कंसः अवदत्
अचिरेण कृष्णं व्यापादयिष्यामीति कंसो वदत् 
The 'm' of कृष्णम् becomes an anusvāra before the 'v' of the next word. 
The इ at the end of व्यापादयिष्यामि joins the इ of 'iti' to become an ई 
The visarga of  कंसः becomes and 'o' and the अ of अवदत् is dropped and marked by an avagraha**

Krishna jumped towards/at Kaṃsa 

कृष्णः कंसम् प्रति प्लवनम् अकरोत्
कृष्णः कंसं प्रति प्लवनमकरोत्
The visarga of कृष्णः is retained before the 'k' of the next word
The 'm' at the end of  कंसम् becomes an anusvāra before the following consonant
The 'm' of प्लवनम् joins with the अ of अकरोत् to make a full 'ma' 

lit. Kaṃsa's hair are grabbed by  Krishna

कंसस्य केशाः कृष्णेन गृहीताः सन्ति
No sandhi changes take place in this sentence. Note that  both before the 'k' and the 's', the visarga is retained. 

Krishna threw Kaṃsa from his seat to the ground

कृष्णः कंसम् पीठात् भूमिम् प्रति अक्षिपत्
कृष्णः कंसं पीठाद्भुमिं प्रत्यक्षिपत् 
Anusvāra end of कंसम्
The 't' of पीठात् becomes a 'd' द् before the 'bh' of भूमिम्, and combines with it 
The 'i' of प्रति becomes a 'y' and combines with the 'a' of अक्षिपत् We did this only last Saturday, as you might recall. (Ref. Twitter session 5th October, soon to be posted on the blog)

lit. Kaṃsa became dead. (Kaṃsa died.)

कंसः मृतः अभवत्
कंसो मृतो भवत्
Visarga of कंसः becomes 'o' before the 'm' of मृतः
Visarga of मृतः becomes 'o' and the 'a' of  अभवत् is replaced by an avagraha.

O my! O my! The people cried

अहो अहो इति जनाः क्रोशन्
अहो अहो इति जना अक्रोशन्
Aho! Aho! is an exclamation of joyful (or painful) surprise. Please note that this expression is NOT subject to sandhi. For advanced students who are following this course to revise, the the rule for this in Panini's Astadhyayi is A.1.1.15.
The only sandhi change is the the visarga of  जनाः  is dropped before the 'a' of क्रोशन्

Flowers fell from the sky

पुष्पाणि गगनात् अपतन्
पुष्पाणि गगनादपतन्
The 't' of गगनात् becomes a  'd' द् and combines with the following अ of अभवत् to make a full 'da' द 

Everywhere there was joy 

सर्वत्र आनन्दः आसीत्
सर्वत्रानन्द आसीत्  
The a of 'tra' combines with the 'aa' of आनन्दः 
The visarga of आनन्दः is dropped before the 'aa' of  आसीत् Please note that you can't do double sandhi. Once the visarga of आनन्दः has been dropped, you can't then join the da to the aa and make आनन्दासीत् !!

anusvāra is the dot on top of the word which indicates a nasalisation
** avagraha is the 's' shaped mark which shows an elision - i.e. something has been removed that was here before. 

I would like to thank Dr. Alastair Gornall and the members of my Classical Sanskrit Course at SOAS for their help in clearing any doubts I have on grammar.


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