Sunday, 16 June 2013

Ādityahṛdayam Verses 20-24 Extolling the Sun

Ādityahṛdayam occurs in the yudha kāṇḍa of Vālmīki’s Rāmāyaṇa before the epic and final confrontation with Rāvaṇa.  It is bestowed upon Rāma  by the sage Agastya  as a means to eliminate fatigue and a sure mantra for victory.  It continues to inspire countless human beings today, being a very powerful hymn. All the more so if you understand what the words means.  Here I translate verses 20-24 which extol the virtues of the Sun-God.

Purists might find my mixture of sandhi and vigraha odd, but I'm just trying to make the words easier for the beginner to see. Apologies in advance. Some people have written in saying the grammar is cumbersome, to them I say, please ignore it. It's not for you, it's for all the students who follow the blog as an aid to learn Sanskrit.

आदित्यहृदयं (20-24)

तमोघ्नाय हिमघ्नाय शत्रुघ्नाय अमितात्मने 
कृतघ्नघ्नाय देवाय ज्योतिषां पतये नमः 

तमोघ्नाय to [ the destroyer of darkness, inertia [तमस् √हन्] dative masculine singular bahuvrihi compound. 
हिमघ्नाय to the destroyer of snow, frost, cold [हिम √हन्] dative masculine singular bahuvrihi compound. 
शत्रुघ्नाय to the destroyer of enemies ... dative masculine singular bahuvrihi compound
अमितात्मने to the immeasurable self  अ+मित immeasurable; passive past participle from √मा (आत्मन्) - self, soul; masculine noun 
कृतघ्नघ्नाय annihilator of the ungrateful; कृतघ्नता = ingratitude; masculine singular bahuvrihi compound. 
देवाय - to the Lord
ज्योतिषां पतये [who is] the Master of all the lights ज्योतिषां genitive plural of ज्योति [here - celestial/all lights]
नमः Salutations; interjection (+dative)

तप्तचामीकराभाय वह्नये विश्वकर्मणे 
नमस्तमोऽभिनिघ्नाय रुचये लोकसाक्षिणे 

तप्त+चामीकर+आभाय to him who has the splendour of molten gold (तप्त  heated, hot चामीकर gold आभा radiance, splendour) dative masculine singular bahuvrihi compound. 
वह्नये to him who is agni, fire; dative masculine singular (Vahni is a special name for the sacrificial fire because, embodied, he carries the oblation to the gods in the Vedic sacrifice. from the root वह् to carry, to draw)
विश्वकर्मणे to him who is the architect, lit. maker of the world/universe; dative BV 
नमस्तमोऽभिनिघ्नाय salutations to him who is the destroyer of darkness; अभि+नि+हन् - beat, strike
रुचये to him who is lustre, light; dative singular  
लोकसाक्षिणे - to him who is the witness of the whole world; dative BV (The belief is that the sun and the moon are the eyes of  the world, able to see all goings on)

नाशयति एषः वै भूतं तदेव सृजति प्रभुः 
पायति एषः  तपति एषः  वर्षति एषः गभस्तिभिः 

Anvaya of line one:
एषः प्रभुः भूतं नाशयति वै तद्+एव सृजति [supply भूतं again]

एषः प्रभुः  This Lord
नाशयति 3rd person, singular, causative √नश् causes them to die, to be destroyed
वै indeed!
भूतं beings; accusative collective singular [भूतों को, प्राणियों को] 
तद्+एव is actually सः एव. "He only" In compound the pronoun [सः] appears in its basic form
सृजति - [he] creates; 3rd person singular √सृज् 
एषः This [Lord/Sun]
पायति एषः He dries; 3rd person singular √पै  (often translated as drinks up or consumes)
तपति एषः He heats √तप्       
वर्षति एषः He showers down [rain] √वृष् 
गभस्तिभिः by means of [his] rays; instrumental plural of गभस्ति masc noun, ray of light, sunbeam

एषः सुप्तेषु जागर्ति भूतेषु परिनिष्ठितः 
एषः एव अग्निहोत्रं च फलं च अग्निहोत्रिणाम् 

Anvaya of line one:
सुप्तेषु भूतेषु एषः परिनिष्ठितः जागर्ति

सुप्तेषु भूतेषु locative absolute [sati saptami] 'When' the beings sleep
एषः परिनिष्ठितः जागर्ति This accomplished Lord is awake, is watchful
परिनिष्ठितः adjective/past participle from परि नि √स्था perfected, accomplished, completely skilled
जागर्ति he awakes from √जागृ  
एषः एव He only 
अग्निहोत्रं च is the sacred fire, the sacrifice (as a neuter, agnihotra is the sacred fire, and the oblation) 
फलं च अग्निहोत्रिणाम् and he is the fruit of the sacrifice अग्निहोत्रिणाम् genitive plural

वेदाः च क्रतवः च एव क्रतुनाम् फलं एव च 
यानि कृत्यानि लोकेषु सर्व एषः रविः प्रभुः 

यानि कृत्यानि - [of] all acts, deeds; nominative plural, कृत्य neuter - that which is to be done, acts, deeds 
लोकेषु in this world; locative plural of लोक - world; masculine noun
सर्व एषः रविः प्रभुः [of] all this [the] Sun is the Lord
वेदाः च [He is] the Vedas and 
क्रतवः च [He is] the sacrifices एव even; क्रतवः nominative plural of क्रतु - sacrifice; masculine noun
क्रतुनाम् of the sacrifices; genitive plural of क्रतु
फलं एव च  and [He is] the fruit (i.e. he is the sacrifices and the fruit of the sacrifices)

1 comment:

Reddy said...

Doesn't this [तमोऽभिनिघ्नाय रुचये लोकसाक्षिणे] start with a 'Namah'?